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Re: CO2 FAQ, low pressure, and hardness

At 12:46 PM 9/20/00 -0400, Dan Dixon wrote:
>I respectfully disagree with Dave G.'s assertion that "The right way to
>do low pressure is to daisy-chain a carbon dioxide regulator and a natural
>gas regulator." There is no singular "right way."

I am sorry that I chose my words poorly.   What I meant to say was:

"The most stable and cheapest way to do low pressure is to ...."

DIY can be quite unstable, so can a regulator and a cheap needle valve.  An 
good enough needle valve is (in my experience) stable but not cheap.   A 
DIY two stage regulator is cheap and stable, but the problem is it is next 
to impossible to design because the manufacturers are not set up to tell 
you what you need to know to design it because they are thinking in terms 
of natural gas regulation for furnaces, water heaters, stoves and the like.

On the subject of hardness, I have uncovered and tried to define the 
following terms:

   Hardness:            Ca+Mg
   General Hardness:    Soap killing (tested by titration with "standard" 
soap solution)
   Permanent hardness:  General hardness after boiling the water
   Temporary hardness:  General hardness - Permanent hardness
   Carbonate content:   Total CO3-- (and relatives) content
   Alkalinity:          Resistance to titration with an acid
   Carbonate hardness:  Minimum of Hardness and Carbonate content (per 
   KH:                  German for carbonate hardness?
   Non-carbonate hardness:   General hardness - Carbonate hardness????

Does anyone disagree with any of these definitions????

Dave Gomberg, San Francisco            mailto:gomberg at wcf_com
NEW Planted Aquaria Magazine:        http://www.wcf.com/pam