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"Norman D. Edelen, Jr. and Lisa A. Hayashi" <normane at hevanet_com>: NANFA--K. Schmidt: DARTER23 (March-April 1997)

--------- Begin forwarded message ----------

From: Hal Schmidt <Harold.J.Schmidt-1 at tc_umn.edu>
To: normane at hevanet_com
Subject: DARTER23 (March-April 1997)
Date: Tuesday, March 18, 1997 8:03 AM

Please send this to the NANFA list. I hope to get it in the mail


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          DARTER NEWSLETTER NUMBER 23: March/April 1997

The  DARTER  is  a bimonthly publication of  the  North  American 
Native Fishes Association (NANFA). Topics reported in this  news
letter include fish studies, rare or unusual occurrences, manage
ment  and recovery programs, environmental issues,  trivia,  col
lecting trips, meetings, aquarium care, and breeding accounts.  A 
Trading  Post  section is also provided for members  to  sell  or 
trade fish, plants, books, and merchandise. Send news items, want 
ads,   comments,   changes  in  address,  and   membership   dues 
($15/yr:N.America-$17/yr:other  continents)  to  Konrad  Schmidt, 
Darter  Editor at the return address, phone: (612)  776-3468,  or 
email: schmi144 at tc_umn.edu

NANFA  BIZ - (1) The Dreaded Red Stamp. Expiring members will  be 
notified  via  a  bold LAST ISSUE stamped on  their  Darters  and 
American  Currents. Please check the date on your mailing  labels 
to  avoid missing a single issue. By the way, NANFA barely  broke 
the  500  member  barrier shortly before the  Summer,  Fall,  and 
Winter American Currents went out. Unfortunately, in catching  up 
almost 100 members expired. However, at the time this Darter went 
to  the  printer, we had rebounded to 425. (2)  Assistant  Darter 
Editor On Board. Many thanks to Kaye Goddard for volunteering  to 
do  two issues beginning with July/August. Please  begin  sending 
her news items, announcements, and Trading Post ads: 3944 N. Farm 
Rd. 39, Ash Grove, MO 65604. Phone: 417-751-3268.  (3) The  NANFA 
web  page has a permanent address: http://www.nanfa.org   Members 
are  welcomed  to check it out and explore links to  other  fishy 
sites. If you're still in the majority of homes without a comput
er  and/or Internet access, try the public library and  don't  be 
shy  about  asking for help. The web page only became  a  reality 
through  the  dedicated  and tireless efforts of  Jay  DeLong.  I 
recently emailed him asking if he ever sleeps and his reply was a 
only a row of ZZZs. Jay has made several requests which he  hopes 
will make the web page a major asset to both current and prospec
tive members. Regional representatives are urged to provide their 
addresses,  phone numbers, and upcoming regional events  for  the 
web  page.  He  is also offering members who  have  fish  related 
businesses  cyberspace to post brochures and information. A  dis
cussion room is currently under consideration and any native fish 
topic  will be fair game. Articles in text on diskette or  as  an 
email  enclosure  are welcomed. Photographs (no  slides)  with  a 
caption written on the back can be inserted into the body of  the 
article  and will be returned after being scanned.  Finally,  Jay 
has  yet  another duty dispensing Fish Art Raffle  Tickets  which 
will help fund the national convention in Portland and only  cost 
a  buck. Place your orders via email on the website, snail  mail: 
19310  77th St. E., Bonney Lake, WA 98390, or phone:  (206)  891-
0281.  (4) Wanted: Volunteers to serve as regional reps and  edi
tors  for the email Trading Post, endangered and threatened  spe
cies  revisions, and an American Currents bibliography  database. 
Contact Robert Rice for details: (904) 936-0097. (5) A NANFA News 
Column is coming to American Currents and will report on regional 
events  and  member activities. Topics sought  include,  but  not 
limited  to  collecting trips, meetings, breeding  accounts,  and 
involvement in environmental issues. Please send your news bulle
tins  to  Bob Bock, P.O. Box 2304, Kensington, MD  20891.  Phone: 
(301) 649-4603. (6) Sunfish Study Group. Open to anyone interest
ed in the research, identification, propagation and  conservation 
of  sunfish  species. For more information contact:  Warren  Lund 
Jr., 1916 Indiana Ave., Kenner, LA 70062. Phone: (504)  461-8169. 
(7) NANFA Email List currently includes about 40 members who send 
and  receive  email messages about NANFA, native fish,  etc.  The 
NANFA  list averages about 7 messages daily, but has very  little 
activity on weekends. There is also a separate Board of Directors 
list  which is restricted to administrative issues.  Members  can 
join  either  list by simply sending an email message  to  Norman 
Edelen,  Jr.<normane@ hevanet.com> with the request, RAdd  me  to 
the  NANFA and/or BOD list. (8) A quarterly  revised  membership 
directory is available as an email text file. Contact Robert Rice 
for a free copy: <robertrice at juno_com> (9) A new NANFA  constitu
tion is enclosed. Please review and vote it up or down.  

ELECTRIC  MAGNETISM  -  Lampreys,  especially  the  non-parasitic 
species, remain some of the poorest known fishes in North  Ameri
ca.  This is due largely to the developing ammocoete's  habit  of 
burrowing  into  soft substrates for most of  the  specie's  life 
cycle.  After 5-7 years in the muck as detritus  filter  feeders, 
they  finally  emerge as adults with a  functional  sucking  disk 
which  is  used only for anchorage to rocks  in  swift  currents. 
However,  adults  lack  a digestive tract and  survive  off  body 
reserves to spawn and die. Until recently ammocoetes were  rarely 
sampled and adults were only observed during very brief  spawning 
migrations.  However,  Hot Holing preferred habitats  with  elec
troshockers may become the technique of choice to literally  drag 
both  ammocoetes and emerging adults out into the light of  day. 
Armed  with only a small backpack shocker, the Darter Editor  has 
found  the  several  new localities in  Minnesota  for   northern 
(Ichthyomyzon fossor), southern (I. gagei), and American  (Lampe
tra appendix) brook lampreys. Preferred habitats include slow  or 
slack water usually on the inside bend of stream banks, lower end 
of   former  high water side channels, sheltered bays,  or  quiet 
pools.  Substrates  are usually comprised of muck,  detritus,  or 
flocculent  sand  and almost always embedded with  woody  debris. 
Depths  are  usually less than two feet and the water  should  be 
fairly  clear to see escaping lampreys which do not swim  to  the 
dipper  like normal fish, but instead attempt a leisurely  escape 
out of the electric field.

PENNSYLVANIA  FISH WALL CHARTS - Series is in full color,  17"  x 
22", and includes coldwater, warmwater, migratory,  miscellaneous 
game, pan, and forage species. The price is only $1.41 each  plus 
$2 shipping (1-5) or $3 (6 or more). Send check or money order to 
the Fish & Boat Commission, Publication Section, P.O. Box  67000, 
Harrisburg, PA 17106-7000.

FISH  ECOLOGY CROSSWORD PUZZLE (Feeding, Habitat,  Spawning,  and 
Tolerance) - ACROSS: 4. Aquatic vegetarians or herbivores include 
stonerollers,  brassy  minnows, northern  and  southern  redbelly 
dace,  and  pugnose  and ____ shiners.  5.  Fishes  sensitive  to 
degraded water quality and/or habitat include sculpins,  darters, 
brook  trout, stonecat; and Topeka, blackchin, and ____  shiners. 
8.  The  mixed  diet of Omnivores provides an  edge  in  impacted 
streams over the gourmet specialists and include carpsuckers, and 
golden  and  ____ shiners. 9. Responsible  fishes  which  provide 
parental  care of eggs and young include  sticklebacks,  catfish, 
sunfish mudminnows, and johnny and ____ darters. 11. Predators or 
top carnivores prey on forage fishes and include bowfin,  burbot, 
muskie,  blue  and flathead catfish, and alligator  and  longnose 
____  .14.  Insectivores  feed on pelagic and  benthic  bugs  and 
include  redhorse, madtoms, darters, redside and finescale  dace, 
and  ____  silversides.15. Pioneers are the first fishes  to  re-
invade  habitats  following  a drought  or  pollution  spill  and 
include  green  sunfish, creek chub, and  orangethroat  and  ____ 
darters.  16.  Generalist feeders are opportunists that  dine  on 
whatever is available and include blacknose dace and ____  chubs.  
DOWN:  1.  Large  river loving  fishes  include  silver  lamprey, 
paddlefish,  sturgeon,  mooneye, quillback, pallid  and  spottail 
shiners, and river and ____ darters. 2. Riffle residents  include 
longnose  dace,  rainbow and banded darters,  and  northern  ____ 
suckers.  3.  Headwater species include American  brook  lamprey, 
brook  stickleback, and redside and ____ dace. 6. Filter  feeders 
sieve  plankton  through  gill  rakers  and  include,  whitefish, 
paddlefish,  and  gizzard  ____. 7. Parasites play  the  role  of 
vampire,  rasping  and sucking a blood meal from their  host  and 
include  silver,  chestnut, and ____ lampreys. 10.  Pool  patrons 
include  sunfish, buffalo, bullheads, common and redfin  shiners, 
and  ____ darter. 11. Exotics or non-natives include carp,  rudd, 
ruffe,  and  round ____ . 12. The eggs of simple  lithophils  can 
only survive in clean gravel and include redhorse and ____ chubs. 
13.  Tolerant  fishes survive and thrive in squalor  and  include 
carp, black bullhead, and ____ sucker.

ANSWERS - Across: 4. weed, 5. ghost, 8. red, 9. fantail, 11. gar, 
14. brook, 15. johnny, 16. creek. Down: 1. mud, 2. hog, 3. pearl, 
6. shad, 7. sea, 10. Iowa, 11. goby, 12. lake, 13. white. Princi
pal  source:  Using  the Index of Biotic of  Integrity  (IBI)  to 
Measure  Environmental Quality in Warmwater Streams of  Wisconsin 
(1992) by John Lyons.

CONTACTS  - The greatest benefit NANFA members enjoy  is  meeting 
others with similar interests and pursuits. The Darter Editor had 
a very memorable experience on a recent collecting trip to  Illi
nois. Ray Katula (Genoa, WI) wanted to collect several darters he 
planned  to  spawn and I looked forward to finally  meeting  long 
time  NANFA  members Jim Sternburg, Phil Nixon, and  Larry  Page. 
However, I had to first drive 3 hours to Ray's, then we  screamed 
to  Champaign  just  in time for an informal  meeting  Larry  was 
having  with his students on a proposed behavioral study of  egg-
mimic  spawning darters. We stayed with our very  gracious  host, 
Jim  Sternburg, who is a retired entomologist and  a  fascinating 
wealth  of information on both terrestrial and aquatic  bugs.  In 
his  home, he has 55 aquariums and several outdoor ponds  in  the 
backyard. Rainbow fish are his life's joy, but he also had a very 
respectable  assemblage  of  natives. Jim took  us  to  a  stream 
(actually  ditch)  near town and I was amazed  at  the  diversity 
present.  A similar ditch in Minnesota would have at most one  or 
two  fishes, but here we found orangethroat and  johnny  darters, 
creek chubsuckers, and several species of minnows. We returned to 
the  Illinois  Natural  History Survey where Larry  gave  a  very 
impressive  tour of the fish collection and I saw my  first  (and 
probably last) harelip sucker. Larry gave Ray some slough darters 
(Etheostoma gracile) he recently collected, and for me, a  blunt
nose  darter (Etheostoma chlorosomum) which was a species  I  had 
wanted  to photograph for years because it had not been  reported 
in Minnesota waters for over half a century.  Larry also took  us 
out  to another nearby stream which contained  greenside  darters  
(Etheostoma  blennioides)  for Ray. However,  recent  rains  made 
collecting precarious at best and I opted to take several  action 
shots of the collectors bobbing helplessly in the raging torrent. 
The  next  day,  we left for home, but detoured  to  Kelly  Creek 
(another  ditch)  where Jim promised we would find   red  shiners 
(Cyprinella lutrensis), striped shiners (Luxilus chrysocephalus), 
and  several other species. Once again, his advice was  dead  on. 
Time permitting, Ray and I both would like to return in the  fall 
during low flows. I very much hope this little tale will  inspire 
more members to boldly go where they have never gone before. 

SALMON FACTS AND FIGURES - The Jan/Feb 1997 International  Angler 
reported: (1) 55% of the Columbia River Basin is blocked by dams. 
(2)  The  cost of Columbia River salmon habitat  destruction  has 
been estimated at $13 billion. (3) There has been a 65% reduction 
in California salmon reproduction over the last 20 years. (4) And 
a 99% reduction in Sacramento River winter run chinook salmon. 

FISHES  OF ALABAMA AND THE MOBILE BASIN - The 832 page  hardbound 
book  was released in December. Species accounts provide a  color 
photograph,  range  map, physical  characteristics,  adult  size, 
habitat,  and biology. The book is available through the  Alabama 
Geological  Survey, P.O. Box O, Tuscaloosa, AL 35486. Send  check 
or  money  order for $50 plus $6 for shipping and  handling.  How 
about a review for the AC?

NANFA  SPECIES  RECOVERY PROPOSALS - The Bring Back  the  Natives 
Program  of the National Fish and Wildlife  Foundation  solicited 
grant proposals which were due in early February. NANFA submitted 
captive propagation proposals for the Oregon chub  (Oregonichthys 
crameri)  and  Blackbanded sunfish (Enneacanthus  chaetodon).  If 
grants  are awarded, members with breeding expertise in  coopera
tion  with state and federal agencies and  private  organizations 
will produce stock for reintroduction to historic habitats. 

AUTOMATED  ELECTRONIC MAILING LIST -  Several fish related  areas 
are  offered. Native prospects include general  aquaria,  plants, 
salmon,  and North American native fishes. The web  page  address 
is: http://www.c2.net/~rieb/aquaria/fishlist.phtml

historical  and  current  native fish data from a  region  of  17 
states  and  2 Canadian provinces. Progress to date  includes  an 
aquatic biodiversity assessment database comprised of information 
from  several natural heritage programs and fishes of...  books. 
For more information about the program contact Michael  Mendelson 
at (303) 541-0369. 

LAKE RAINBOWS - The Darter Editor had a humbling experience  last 
summer  when I received a second hand account that DNR  fisheries 
biologists had found the rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) in 
Phalen  Lake which is in the city limits of St. Paul, MN. For  25 
years, I had collected this species and only on one occasion  did 
I find a single individual in a lake environment which was  actu
ally  an  impoundment of a stream that did contain  the  species. 
Historically,  a stream did drain Phalen, but was long ago  piped 
several  miles underground to the Mississippi River. The  collec
tion  site description included muck substrates with  dense  sub
merged  aquatic vegetation. I arrogantly dismissed  this  initial 
account  as  misidentified Iowa darters (Etheostoma  exile),  but 
through the grapevine, I heard another report that biologists had 
returned in the fall and collected additional specimens. I paid a 
visit to the area office where I met the collector who  mentioned 
she had run the specimens through the fish keys several times and 
came  up with both rainbows and Iowa darters. I asked to see  the 
collection  and  peered  into the bottle with  amazement  at  the 
contents. Jay Hatch at the Bell Museum fish collection  confirmed 
identification which also established the first record of rainbow 
darters in Ramsey County. However, I remain puzzled how and  when 
rainbows got into Phalen Lake and if the population will persist. 
I  really  doubt  they swam up the pipe. Jay  believes  they  are 
aquarium releases, but I'm not as certain. I hope to return  this 
year and collect a larger sample for Jay to scrutinize.  

COLLECTING MAPS of Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, and Ohio available in 
an atlas format can be ordered for $21.95 each from:  Sportsman's 
Atlas, P.O. Box 132, Lytton, IA 50561. Phone: 800-568-8334.
MAILBAG  -  Robert Carillio (Warren, OH)  is  planing  collecting 
trips  for  April and May. Anyone interested  in  tagging  along, 
please  call  him at (330) 847-1414. He has also been  very  busy 
attempting  to prevent one of the last woodland/wetland areas  in 
his city from being developed. On another battle front, Robert is 
opposing  legislation which was promoted to protect  the  state's 
waterways, but is dependent entirely on polluters to  voluntarily 
report violations under the incentive that lenient penalties will 
be  issued. In a kinder and gentler arena, Robert and  his  wife, 
Marie, gave a three hour presentation to a local aquarium society 
meeting  on native fishes and had a terrific  response.  Finally, 
Robert  launched  his inaugural regional newsletter.  Members  in 
Ohio  and  adjoining states can contact him to be  added  to  the 
mailing list.  Jay DeLong (Bonney Lake, WA) found a 1985 gem of a 
publication which is still in print. Colorado's Little Fish is  a 
guide  to  the  state's minnows and other  lesser  known  fishes. 
Species  accounts  include an excellent color  photograph,  range 
map,  physical characters, and habitat description. The price  is 
only  $3 and can be ordered from the Division of Wildlife,  Dept. 
of Natural Resources, 6060 Broadway, Denver CO 80216.  Hy Finkel
stein  (Orange,  CA) forwarded an article from the  December  29, 
1996  Orange  County  Register which reported on  a  proposed  $2 
million  plan  to  use a fish toxicant that  will  eliminate  the 
introduced  northern  pike  (Esox lucius) from  Lake  Davis  near 
Portola,  CA. It is feared the species will escape downstream  to 
the  Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta where it will pose yet  another 
threat  to  the  already beleaguered salmon  fishery.  The  local 
residents are generally opposed to the idea because the  toxicant 
has  several  chemical additives including a carcinogen  and  the 
lake  is the source for the city's water supply. Area wells  were 
tested  as an alternative source, but results revealed traces  of 
arsenic.  Also, there are no guarantees that the  chemicals  will 
not leach into the groundwater through the lake bed. The reporter 
presented  quite a descriptive account for the  nasty  northern's 
alleged  traits.  Some  excerpts include:  Rwolf  in  freshwater, 
cougar  of  the river, jaws like traps, gullet resembling  a  jet 
turbine, only game fish which kills for pleasure, prefers sinking 
its razored snout into defenseless trout and salmon, when  landed 
will  lash around like a cornered wolverine,S and warned,  Rchil
dren  should  never be taken pike fishing. Even the  one  control 
measure  so  far  implemented was worthy of  a  creative  writing 
award.  A  fish shredder has been installed on the  dam's  outlet 
pipe which works like a  Rhuman hitting a chain link fence at  60 
mph.  B. G. Granier (Baker, LA) has another trivia tickler:  What 
Pacific  Northwestern fish's flesh is translucent, emerald  green 
when  raw  and  opaque white when cooked? -  the  greenling  cod.   
Elmer  Guerri (West Terre Haute, IN) sent a memo that  the  IL-IN 
regional meeting location has been changed to Horseshoe Lake near 
Olive Branch, IL on May 3-4, 1997. For more information on  lodg
ing and scheduled events contact Elmer at: (812) 535-4175.   Eric 
Hollis  (Liverpool,  England)  forwarded  articles  from  English 
aquarium  magazines on keeping and breeding minnows and  remarked 
there  is a great deal of interest in England for North  American 
native  fishes.  Unfortunately,  recent  government   regulations 
prohibit  importation of these species unless they can be  certi
fied disease free for at least two years. Eric keeps his  private 
stock  of red shiners, fathead minnows, and rosyred  fatheads  (a 
golden  variety) in two small ponds where they spawn  frequently. 
However, he also has some aging redbelly dace which have not been 
as fertile and is scouring the country looking for  replacements.  
Kris Haggblom (Nanuet, NY) has confirmed the presence of the long 
absent  mud  sunfish  (Acantharchus pomotis)  in  the  Hackensack 
River.  The  collection  was made south of  the  I-59  bridge  at 
Clarkstown,  NY.   Mark Hove (Falcon Hts., MN) was the  first  of 
several NANFA members to document the spread of the orangespotted 
sunfish (Lepomis humilis) in the Mississippi River above Minneap
olis,  MN  in 1995. In 1996, he  collected  additional  specimens 
about  30 miles upstream from the Mississippi in the  Crow  River 
near  Delano. It is highly likely orangespots will  continue  ex
panding  into all tributaries upstream to the dam at  St.  Cloud. 
Ray  Katula  (Genoa, WI) was working last fall for  a  commercial 
fishermen  on the St. Croix River at Hudson, WI where he is  cer
tain  they  seined  what may have been  the  first  bighead  carp 
(Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) reported from MN-WI boundary waters. 
He wanted to keep it for the Bell Museum fish collection, but the 
trophy  weighed  35-40 pounds. The Darter  Editor  contacted  the 
fisherman  who  agreed  with the ID and remarked  he  had  seined 
another  individual two years earlier at Prescott, WI.  Ray  also 
had a winter project spawning the flame chub (Hemitremia flammea) 
and currently has about 300 free swimming fry. Dan Logan (Albany, 
OR)  wants to welcome members to bring live fish for  display  in 
aquariums  at the NANFA convention in August. However, there  are 
some regulations pertaining to species which are not  established 
in the state. Individuals must apply to the Oregon Department  of 
Fish and Wildlife for a transportation permit which is free,  but 
takes up to two months to process. The permit must be attached to 
the  aquarium during the meeting. Prohibited North American  spe
cies  include:  bowfin and all gar and pike. Finally,  fish  must 
leave the state immediately following the meeting. Permit  appli
cations  are  available from Norman Edelen, Jr., 1197  NE  106th, 
Portland,  OR  97220. Please enclose a SASE.   Dr.  John  Peterka 
(NDSU Zoology Dept. - Fargo, ND) did some digging for the  Darter 
Editor on the exotic ide or golden orf (Leucisus idus) and  found 
an article in the June 1, 1986 The Forum (Fargo newspaper)  which 
reported  a  5.5 pound ide was caught in the Buffalo  River  near 
Glyndon, MN and also mentioned another one was taken in Red River 
of  the North at Fargo-Moorhead about 1980.  None have  been  re
ported  since  1986. Tim Roettiger (Hudson, WI)  wrapped  up  his 
Masters  Degree and accepted a position on a chum salmon  ecology 
study in Fairbanks, AK. He asked the Darter Editor to find a good 
home  for his pet alligator gar which is now residing in a  large 
elementary school aquarium. He also promised to write an  article 
on  the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) for the AC.  By  the 
way,  is  anyone interested in his sailboat which  has  the  very 
unique name of MUMMICHOG? John Sidle (Chadron, NE) is the  Endan
gered  Species Coordinator for the Great Plains  National  Grass
lands.  He is in the process of compiling an occurrence  list  of 
over  1000 species (including fish) for each grassland  in  every 
state  and  province. Eventually, he hopes to put the list  on  a 
website  to   receive comments, revisions, and  corrections.  For 
more information on the project, contact him at: (308) 432-0391.  

MINNESOTA CHECKLIST -  NANFA members, Jay Hatch (Bell Museum) and 
Dann Siems (Bemidji State University) with a little help from the 
Darter  Editor  and others are preparing a paper which  will  de
scribe recent  revisions in occurrence, distribution, and conser
vation  status  of Minnesota's fish fauna. The highlight  of  the 
paper will be a two page easy reference list of speciesU  distri
bution in the state's major drainages.  Eventually, this  section 
will be sold as a stand alone and waterproofed for field use. 

PALLID STURGEON RECOVERY UPDATE is an annual newsletter edited by 
NANFA member, Mark Dryer, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
(USFWS).  Just a few highligts reported in April 1996  issue  in
cluded:  (1)  Updated  recovery plans are  still  available.  (2) 
Summaries  of  recent surveys and genetic studies.  (3)  A  video 
documentary: Sturgeon: Ancient Survivors of the Deep is available 
on  a loan basis for educational purposes. (4) Fiberglass  mounts 
of  a 40 pound pallid sturgeon can be ordered for about $250.  To 
request  the  newsletter or contribute information  for  upcoming 
issues  related to pallid sturgeon studies,  associated  species, 
and habitat restoration; contact Mark at the USFWS, 1500  Capitol 
Ave., Bismarck, ND 58501. Phone: (701) 250-4419.

TAIL END: Green Eggs and Ham -  Rough fish in general are  rarely 
studied,  poorly  known, and this vacuum may spawn  more  fiction 
than fact. One account for gar that I have found cited ad infini
tum  is  that they have bright green eggs. I too accepted  it  as 
doctrine until I got involved with spawning gar for the  aquarium 
trade.  I have seen the eggs from scores of longnose,  shortnose, 
spotted, and Florida gar, but have yet to find a single one  that 
is  green.  They're gray, white, and sometimes even  pretty  sap
phires.  This discovery also makes me question the related  claim 
that eggs are poisonous to all vertebrates including humans,  but 
not  fish.   Perhaps I'll just have to conduct  my  own  research 
study and try some green eggs and ham for breakfast some day?

                          TRADING POST
           (Trades subject to state and federal laws!)

Robert  Carillio, 509 Genessee Ave., Warren, OH 44483.  (330)847-
1714.  Have: fish shipping boxes, aquatic plants, misc.  aquarium 
accessories (e.g., old Mags), greenside darters, mottled sculpin, 
and  more. Want: southern redbelly dace, warpaint  shiners,  Iowa 
and redline darters, and freshwater eels.

Jerod  Elder,  42775  San  Julian  Place,  Temecula,  CA   92591. 
(909)699-1099. Have or can get: spotted bass, juvenile largemouth 
bass,  arroyo chubs, least killifish, gobies, sculpins, and  many 
others  CA fresh and saltwater fishes.  Want: redfin,  grass,  or 
chain pickerel; black mottled gambusia, darters, madtoms, Elasso
ma and Enneacanthus species, threadfin shad, trout, bluenose  and 
rainbow shiners, Sacramento perch, blue sucker, longnose gar, and 
any aquatic plants. Will buy or trade. Also looking for  informa
tion to culture live foods especially brine shrimp.

Tom Gray, 1 Bruce Close, Stock Green, Westerhope, Newcastle  Upon 
Tyne  NES 5LH  England. Phone: 91-2864215. Want:  information  on 
breeding  southern  redbelly dace, back issues of  American  Cur
rents, and any sources for any killifish eggs.

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cies also available. Sale or trade.

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(419)599-3510.  Have  in  like new condition:  Spotte,  Fish  and 
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of  California-$10. All 5 books-$30 plus postage. Also  available 
micro-worms-$1 and fruit fly-$2 starters plus postage. 

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Date: Tue, 18 Mar 1997 15:17:22 -0800
Subject: NANFA--P. Unmack: (Long) Blacknose Dace Culture Summary (fwd)
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From: peter.unmack at ASU_Edu
To: Norman Jr. Edelen <normane at hevanet_com>
Subject: (Long) Blacknose Dace Culture Summary (fwd)
Date: Tuesday, March 18, 1997 1:49 PM

for the group (if Dan hasn't already passed it on)

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Tue, 18 Mar 1997 13:02:39 -0500
Subject: (Long) Blacknose Dace Culture Summary

Dear Colleagues,

Before the holidays, I posted a query to the list regading the culture
at the time, mortality in captivity) of blacknose dace *Rhinichthys
atratulus*.  I am appending for the members of the list the responses I
received with some annotations in brackets [mine].

1.  Culture Methods.  Cal Kaya, Montana State Univ. wrote about the
culture of speckled dace (R. osculus):  Kaya, C.  1991. Laboratory
spawning and rearing of speckled dace.  Prog. Fish Cult. 53:259-260.
They were very easy to maintain, spawn and rear in captivity.  Some
batches were subjected to greater and faster temperature change than
you describe, with no apparent ill effects and even spawned shortly
thereafter.  We publushed other information on R. osculus in Copeia
1992: 528-535 amd Copeia 1991: 227-229, although spawning and
rearing are mentioned only peripherally in these.

Water Quality/ Contamination.  Robert Rice, Mark Muse, Bob Bock.
Several suggested contaminated source water.  [Fortunately for the
fathead minnow culture kept on the same water supply (but at 25C),
contamination was not a problem.]

An aquarist at the NJ State Aquarium wrote to report the following
parameters:  Temp.  60F =/-2, pH 7.8+/-0.2, NO3 5ppm+-2.
[Our water chemistry:  pH  7.8- 8.2;  hardness 160-200 mg/l; T 12-15C.
Data on ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were not as conclusive.  Analysis
after the kill did not show problematic levels, but these analyses were
not being performed routinely, since the system was flow-through.  It is
possible we had an elevated level of one or more of these parameters.]

Overcrowding and Hypoxia.  Mike Pauers, Bob Bock and Robert Rice.
100 individuals of a species that enjoys cold, fast-moving, highly
oxygenated waters in ~100L seems a little much to me.  What I think
could be happening is that ammonia buildup is exceeding the dilution rate
and choking off the oxygen.  I would recommend:  Increase the flow of
water to the tank; aerate the water itself; increase circulation within
tank with a powerhead; consider adding a filter; reduce density.
[O2 was supersaturated.  We are investigating the possibility of gas
bubble disease though this seems inconsistent with the gill pathology.
See below.  Current conditions: <30 individuals in 20 to 35 g.  We have
maintained a new group of Dace (R. atratulus) under culture conditions
for three weeks, with only two mortalities since the first 48 hours post
collection.  The animals appear healthy, and are feeding well.
Apparently, reducing the density of indiviuals/tank has helped.]

Brown Blood Disease (Methemoglobinemia): Ala Zale, Joe Buttner and
Jay DeLong.  The gill color of your dace reminded a fish pathologist
co-worker of mine of brown blood disease (methemoglobinemia), which
occurs in intensively cultured salmonids and channel catfish.  SEE:
Brown Blood Disease (Methemoglobinemia) of Fishes. By Paul owser.
Dept of Avian and Aquatic Animal Medicine, NY State College of
Veterinary Medicine, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, Fish Disease
Leaflet 70, published by the US Dept of Interior.
Summarizing the paper:  The disease occurs in culture systems with high
nitrite concentrations in combination with low concentrations of other
monovalent ions.  Nitrite oxidizes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which
cannot carry oxygen.  Nitrite conc. does not always serve as a predictor
of the disease.  Clinical signs include lethargy, crowding near water
inlets or aeration equipment [not seen by us], chocolate brown blood
color and a sharp rise in mortality.  It is treated primarily through
CaCl.  CaCl is more effective than NaCl with salmonids.  The paper
discusses various Cl to nitrate ratios and the uses of these ratios in
diagnosis and treatment of the disease.  As a compensatory mechanism,
culturists (in the southern US with channel catfish) tupically use 10ppm
of NaCl by wt.
[This seems to be the culprit to me based on most of the symptoms
described.  Could gas supersaturation, (supersaturated oxygen - and
presumably nitrogen?), contribute to, cause or increase susceptibility to

Frank H. McCormick
Research Ecologist
USEPA - National Exposure Research Laboratory
26 W. Martin Luther King Dr.
Cincinnati, OH 45268

513 569 7097

mccormick.frank at epamail_epa.gov

--------- End forwarded message ----------