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Re: Softened Water
>As I understand it, a softener exchanges Ca and Mg ions for Na ions,
>so the amount of Na added is equal to the amount of Ca and Mg that
>you had to begin with.
Actually, as Ca and Mg are divalent cations (they have a +2 charge),
two monovalent Na cations (they have a +1 charge) are needed for
exchange. Thus, for every Ca or Mg ion removed, two Na ions are
By weight, however, if a softener removes 100 ppm Mg, then it must
release 189.2 ppm Na (Mg has a higher atomic weight than Na). Removal
of 100 ppm Ca releases 114.7 ppm Na.