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Cu in Microplex

 Miles Morrissey wrote: <<<<<< Subject: Cu in Microplex  (...) I noticed
someone mention a few days ago about not using Microplex as a Trace Element
Mix because of the high level of Copper.  I am in the process of mixing PMDD
but I'm now concerned that this copper will adversely affect the tank.  Will
copper hurt my red ramshorn snails or malaysian trumpet snails??  What
concentrations do I have to worry about?>>>>>>

I am one of those who are a little bit concerned about the high copper
content of Microplex (1.5%). This concern however is mainly due to the fact
that I am specifically interested in keeping in my tanks water conditions
compatible with invertebrates such as freshwater shrimps or mussels. If my
calculations are right, using one tablesp. of Microplex in each 300 ml PMDD
batch  would translate into a Cu concentration in the PMDD solution of
0.45mg/ml and in the replacement aquarium water of 0.045 mg/l (with 1 ml
PMDD/10 l relacement water). In aquaria books, acute exposure to Cu levels
~ten times higher (0.5 mg/l) is known to have potentially toxic effects on
fish and inverts, and I am not sure that a safety factor of 10 is adequate
for chronic exposure. Chronic exposures to very low toxicants levels may be
harmful only after long periods of time.  The extent of deposition and
accumulation in the substrate is also difficult to assess. Many people are
very happy with Microplex however, and as far as I know nobody has reported
problems so far. I just do not feel like taking a chance.