Re: Wiping out brush algae? (long)

>From: Dirk 
>Date: Fri, 17 Jan 1997 10:42:30 -0600
>Subject: Wiping out brush algae?
>I had an interesting off-list conversation with one of the more respectable
>participants in this digest about brush algae.  He thinks that there's no
>point in trying to eradicate it--the spores are probably airborne and it'll
>probably come back anyway.  I'm doing a decent job of controlling the brush
>algae, but wonder as I set up my dream tank (or as close as my budget will
>allow), should I try bleaching everything as it goes in from afflicted
>tanks?  Is it worth a shot?

Although my article on red algae has appeared previously on this list; was
published in TAG, in FAMA (nov and dec 96) and probably is elswehre on the
web..... I thought I would bring it back one more time. (I left off the 15
references and end notes).
I used to have what appeared to be uncontrollable red algae in my tanks. The
pictures are on the AGA web page <http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~aquaria/AGA/>.
Once you get red algae eliminated/controled... IT DOES NOT SEEM TO COME BACK
(at least, it is essentially invisibible to the naked eye <g>).  I NEVER put
anything into one of my aquaria from a tank with visible red algae without
bleaching the suspected item. In order of relative efficacy, I would use
SAEs and/or bleach at the top of the list for red algae control. Even with
bleach, the SAEs are a nice second line of defense (just in case those nasty
spores sneak in with the new bought fish's poop <g>)

               Control of Red Algae in Freshwater Aquaria
           How to deal with the furry beard or brush algae

	Among all the algae that can invade and gain a foothold in freshwater
aquaria, red algae from the division Rhytophyta, can be the most frustrating
to the hobbyist. This furry, thread-like flora attaches to various aquarium
surfaces including the edges of plant leaves, filter tubes and even gravel.
It may have many colors (purple, gray-green, black) and resembles beard hair
or fur. In the aquarium literature, this nuisance is often called beard or
brush algae. Baensch Aquarium Atlas' illustrate and talk about three forms.
The long thread variety is called beard algae (once misprinted as bear
algae), the shorter thread type is called brush algae; and a third type is
described as having very short threads and forms dark roundish spots. While
most algae from this family are actually found in marine or brackish water
environments, there are a few species that inhabit freshwater (including the
genera Audouinella). In nature, these epiphytic freshwater red algae are
found in fast moving streams which provide a constant, but perhaps low
concentration supply of nutrients including CO2. They also have the ability
to attach tenaciously to all objects which makes them well suited to the
moving water habitat. Unfortunately, they cannot be easily scraped or pulled
from objects, thereby adding to the difficulty of their removal from the
aquarium. In fact, when attempting to remove from plant leaves, the aquarist
or even fishes may tear the leaf in the process. On the positive side, some
hobbyists find this algae an interesting and welcome addition to their
tanks. It  may offer a special charm to driftwood or rocks, especially with
the undulating movement created by the downwash of a filter outlet or powerhead.

	The red algae is often the topic of discussion in aquarium literature.  In
the May 1996 issue of FAMA, four separate articles mention it!  In the lead
article, Liisa Sarakontu and I talk about the Siamese Algae Eater
(Crossocheilus siamensis), perhaps the only fish known to effectively eat
and essentially eliminate this algae from the freshwater aquarium. Then
Peter Lewis reports on this very same fact in his month column on fish
trivia. Third, Simon Ellis presents "Its a Jungle in There" and mentions his
unsuccessful battle with red algae. Finally, in the freshwater Q&A column,
Simon appears again to ask Owen Jeffries: "How do I prevent a recurrence of
the black bush [brush] algae." Owen, however, falls short of answering his
question.  Fortunately for Simon, there are many effective cures for the red
algae plague. Here is the rest of the story.

Causes for Red Algae in the Aquarium. 
	The most likely reason for red algae is introduction of contaminated plants
or a bag of fish from a store tank with red algae. This can come in as some
small filaments floating in the water, as water born spores or perhaps in
the digestive tract of fishes.  Once deposited into a suitable aquarium
environment, they may become established. It is evident from the picture of
Simon's lush planted aquarium in the May FAMA that this was the case. 

	Unlike Jeffries, I do not believe that soil used under the substrate is a
likely source of red algae. I have used soil in some of my planted tanks for
many years and never saw red algae in these tanks, even before I found the
Siamese Algae Eater. I am also not aware of this problem with many other
aquatic gardeners who believe that the iron, manganese and other nutrients
derivable from soil can be very helpful for a plant tank, provided that all
other conditions are correct and the plant density is sufficient. Perhaps
this route of entry is plausible if the soil is was taken from a river bank
or if aquatic sediment is used. Nevertheless, deposited red algae will
benefit from the extra nutrients which can also originate from soils. If a
complete set of nutrients are available in the water column from whatever
source, algae will thrive.

	Simon also wonders if very high light levels and iron levels may be the key
to prevention. His question appears to be rhetorical because both of these
parameters are important indicators of plant and algae growing conditions in
the aquarium. Sufficient light is need for good plant growth and generally
speaking the rate will increase with higher intensity. Actively growing
plants will also soak up nutrients from the water column helping to starve
algae. While rooted plants can derive nutrients from the substrate, algae
basically get their food from the water. If nutrients concentrations are
reduced in the water column, the algae will suffer.  

Approaches for Eliminating Red Algae
Eliminate it before it enters the aquarium.
	First, the aquarist can attempt to avoid introducing red algae into an
uncontaminated aquarium. This is most important if red algae is seen in the
local area, say,  in the local aquarium shops. Contamination from
transferred plants is likely, even if the algae isn't clearly visible.  In
these situations, a suggested approach is to 'disinfect' the plants to kill
the red algae. It may also be helpful to avoid using any water from an
aquarium shop  (e.g. acclimate new fishes in a bucket) and  quarantine new
fish for a few days until they clear their digestive system.

	Removing  infected leaves is another good idea. In any event, removing some
older leaves is often the suggested protocol to reduce the shock of
transplanting. With cases where slow growing  plants like Anubias have been
exposed, however, all leaves may be covered and it becomes impractical to
remove the affected parts.

	Although what I am about to suggest sounds a bit drastic or potentially
harmful, it is actually quite safe and very effective. It also avoids the
necessity to remove any leaves. The suggested procedure involves a 2 to 3
minute disinfection bath in diluted household bleach (1 part bleach to 19
parts water). You can use the name brand products or the generic. Just get
the ordinary bleach and do not get the variety with the added lemon scent.
Place the plant in the solution (including one that is totally covered with
algae) and gently circulate the bleach solution to ensure good coverage.
The fine leaf plants are the most sensitive and should only get 2 minutes,
while the broad leaf varieties including Java fern, sword plants and Anubias
can take the full 3 minutes. Next, give them an immediate rinse in clean
water. I usually have a bucket with clean water ready and I simply transfer
the plant to the new container and leave it there for a few seconds.  The
previously touch algae is now dead, visible pieces can be more easily
removed by rubbing the leaves between your fingers and the plants are now
ready to go into their new home. 

	Some plants will later loose their leaves, but when placed into a suitable
environment (good light, nutrients, etc), the plants will quickly recover
and soon take off.  As a bonus, the bleach treatment (but perhaps with more
than 3 minutes immersion) will also eliminate the green hair algae
(Pithophora, Cladophora, Oedogonium, etc).  Plants like swords, crypts and
Anubias can take 4 minutes of the bleach treatment without too much damage.
The tough textured hair algae can be very resistant and really need 4
minutes.  Fortunately, stem plants that can't take 4 minutes are able to
outgrow hair algae, which usually attaches to old parts and doesn't seem to
spread to the young parts very quickly. As many of us know, these algae can
be just as big a nuisance down the road.  

	Bleach can also be used to remove algae from other aquarium objects
including rocks, filter parts and even gravel. Of course this would be done
outside the tank.  Rinse everything very well and be sure to remove all
traces of bleach. Your nose will be a good judge. Extra rinsing and even air
drying is suggested for porous or large surface area items like clay pots.

Provide trace elements to the plants and deprive the algae.
	If one or more plant nutrients are substantially reduced or completely
eliminated from the water, then the algae will fail. This can be
accomplished by managing iron which is one of the most important trace

	Iron can be provided to the aquarium in several ways -- thru feeding and
subsequent mineralization of detritus; with soil or laterite in the
substrate,  some from new water introduced with water changes, and with the
addition of plant fertilizers.  Sufficient iron is desirable, but too much
is bad. While iron is needed for good growth of all plants, including algae,
excess amounts will merely be extra food for algae and help it to thrive.
Iron is often a limiting plant nutrient and it can be an indicator of the
concentration of other needed trace nutrients.

	Most iron in the aquarium (e.g. from decomposing organic matter,
mineralized detritus or from added tap water) will be bound to oxygen or
organic matter and will be less accessible to algae. Digested iron will be
excreted as feces and deposit in the substrate. The same is true for any
iron oxidizes, as contained in soils or laterite. 

	 - Limit the amount of added soluble, iron bearing  aquarium plant
fertilizer.  Rooted plants can derive iron from the substrate in addition to
getting it from the water. However, algae (and floating plants) can only get
it from the water. So, one strategy is to reduce the amount of added iron.
Many fertilizers contain a chelated form of iron which is designed to keep
the iron in solution. The recommended dose is often designed to produce a
concentration of approximately 0.10 ppm and may be based on daily or weekly
additions. Unfortunately, label suggestions are based on some typical
condition which may not be ideal for your situation. Depending on the
nutrient uptake based on density of plants, their general health, growth
rates as well as  the existing reservoir of iron in the aquarium, the target
concentration may be too high. Therefore, some trial and error may be needed
to determine the correct dosage for your situation. I also note that the
iron concentration is also an indicator of the amount of a variety of other
trace element nutrients used by both higher plants and algae.

	   - Add iron directly to the substrate. A final way to reduce iron in the
substrate is to not intentionally add any iron bearing fertilizers to the
water.  However, iron must still be made available to the plants. The latter
reason is why good plant growth can occur in an established tank but not in
some newly established ones.  Fish excretions will supply most other
nutrients, so many aquarist can have virtually algae free plant tanks with
good lighting and regular feeding of the fish. In all of these cases, the
insoluble iron from the soil or from mineralized detritus can be chemically
modified (reduced) in the oxygen free,  anaerobic  areas of the substrate
and become accessible to the plants through their roots.  Small amounts of
iron and other trace elements in the water will still be soaked up by the
plants, thereby helping to starve the algae. With this strategy,
supplemental additions of iron may become necessary when the plants are well
established and the roots totally fill the substrate. Then it becomes
difficult for the plants to get their iron from this source. Hopefully, by
this time all the algae problems are under control.

Manage the rate of nutrient uptake. 
	This is another way to control excess iron and other water soluble
nutrients.  This is where lighting and plant density come in -- generally
the more light, the faster the plant growth and with more plants, the faster
the nutrient concentrations are depleted. Sufficient light is need for good
plant growth and generally speaking, growth will increase with more intense
light. Because actively growing plants will soak up nutrients from the water
column, this helps to starve algae.  Although it is also a good idea to
avoid introducing excess nutrients, a heavily planted tank will make it
difficult for any extra to remain around for long.  Regular water changes
are also important to avoid nutrient buildups.

	In heavily planted tanks with few fishes or ones that are fed lightly, it
may be possible to develop a nitrogen deficiency. This will cause plant
growth to slow down and allow some algae to start to get the upper hand.
Perhaps this situation can also benefit red algae.  When this occurs,
nitrogen supplements may be needed to re-establish the nutrient balance and
permit plants to out compete algae. 

Use lots of heathy plants to help get things off to a good start. 
	It is important to plant heavily to permit plants to out compete algae,
especially in a new setup. It is even more important to use healthy plants.
Sometimes plants are weakened during transit from the grower to the
aquarist, so newly purchased plants may take a while to become acclimated.
They will not be growing quickly and soaking up nutrients if they are not in
good condition.  It is best to know the source of your plants and get them
from the actual grower (perhaps yourself) rather than through a transhipper.
I also like to obtain them when they first arrive at the aquarium shop
before they have a chance to pick up any new algae or have their roots
damaged from an additional planting

Maintain a densely planted aquarium.
	Among all the strategies mentioned above, a common solution is a tank of
healthy, actively growing plants. Many aquarists report disappearance of
certain algae, including red algae in heavily planted tanks with healthy,
actively growing plants. So, nutrient management may be the means to the
desirable end, but may not be the actual mechanism for the outcome.   The
types and density of plants may in fact be the reason for eliminating,
discouraging or resisting red algae (and other algae). Some plants, both
slow and fast growing appear to be more prone to red algae attacks than
others. I recall one moderately planted tank with the red algae covering
slow growing Anubias and the new leaves of faster growing Echinodorus
bleheri, but not on the relatively slower  Cryptocoryne affinis.  Plants are
known to introduce chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plant
species or certain algae.  These defensive compounds, called
allelochemicals, build up over time and may also be responsible for failure
of some higher plants in an otherwise healthy plant tank. Therefore, with a
heavily planted tank and patience, you may see red algae disappear on its own. 

Consider CO2.  
	Another nutrient which may be related to the sustenance of red algae is
inorganic carbon. This exists in the aquarium as dissolved CO2, bicarbonate
or carbonates. The equilibrium of these carbon species depend on pH.  Free
CO2 becomes available at pH less than 8.0 and predominates when pH is less
than 6.5. In my experience, I have only seen red algae in low alkalinity,
low pH conditions. Tanks with calcareous substrates will push the carbonate
equilibrium from CO2 to HCO3- and red algae seem to diminish. Accordingly,
I used to see beard and brush algae in my moderately planted South American
cichlid tanks, but never in the Tanganyikan tanks with their crushed coral
substrate. It seems that red algae may be among those algae and water plants
that can only utilize free CO2.  

	On the other hand, several sources suggest that adding CO2 will help
eliminate red algae. Although this first appears to be a contradiction to my
hypothesis, I believe this method is effective because CO2 injection helps
to increase the rate of plant growth. As mentioned earlier,  with a large
density of plants  and bright light, the plants will suck up dissolved
nutrients (or release allelochemicals) and cause algae to subside. The same
effect can be accomplished by  CO2 obtained from aquatic organisms or
decomposition of organic matter.  Hydrogen peroxide and enzymes are also
said to control algae. I believe this is due to a similar effect --
increased bacterial growth, which provides the potential benefit of
increasing CO2 concentrations. I should note that at the time I had red
algae in the South American cichlid tank, I was adding any CO2 and did not
have an organic substrate. 

Utilize algae eaters. 
	The next major strategy for algae control involves algae eaters. First and
foremost is the Siamese algae Eater (Crossocheilus siamensis), perhaps the
only known fish to eat red algae. As mentioned earlier this cyprinidae and
its look-a-likes was the subject of the lead article in the May issue of
FAMA and was also featured in the April issue of Aquarium Fish Magazine. As
with all algae eating fishes, it is best to introduce them into an aquarium
before red algae becomes established -- preferably, when the tank is first
set up. Feeding should be minimized during this stage so that the SAE and
other algae eaters will be trained to seek out algae as their source of
nourishment. In an established tank, a small school of these fish will also
help out and can quickly eliminate mature red algae from your tank.  A
second animal in the arena of hair algae control are shrimps. The
Yumato-numa-ebi, the Japanese marsh shrimp (Caridina japonica) is used
almost exclusively in Japan and Taiwan for algae control. These creatures
which are native to Asian waters are mentioned in Amano's great book Nature
Aquarium World and are a more colorful alternative to our native glass or
grass shrimp. Amano says the Yumato numa ebi is the best algae eater.
Caridina and similar Neocaridina species are not yet available in the U.S.
Our fresh water shrimps are called glass or grass shrimps (Palaeomonetes
sp.). They are also native to Europe. Glass shrimps can be found in aquarium
shops and fisherman's bait stores.  I have used both the Yumato-numa-ebi and
glass shrimps and can personally report success with hair algae. To be
effective, the shrimps must be used in large numbers, not allowed to eat
preferred fish food and obviously can't be used in tanks with certain hungry
fishes. When needed to control algae in such tanks, add lots of shrimps at
night. They will work on the algae while the fish sleep and then the fish
can have a snack in the morning.  If used in a tank where the only source of
food is plants and algae, they may start on the plants when detritus and
other food supplies disappear.

Use Chemical controls. 
	Copper will kill red algae. However, I only suggest this measure as a
treatment of last resort.  Although I first discussed algicides in 1986/7,
these chemicals  have been used to control algae for a long time. Unlike
other algicides sold for aquarium use (e.g. simazine), copper will kill red
algae. Unfortunately, it will also harm some aquarium plants (e.g.
Myriophyllum and Vallisneria), so it should be used with caution. However,
the treatment will not harm many desirable aquatic plants including
Echinodorus (sword plants.), Cryptocoryne  (crypts),  Anubias,  Microsorum
(Java Fern) and many others. The major advantage to the copper treatment is
that the tanks does not have to be dismantled and disinfected -- the plants,
rocks, gravel can be all left in place. In addition, some plants (crypts)
actually seem to benefit from the slug of copper while many other sensitive
algae succumb to the treatment. The only thing that should generally be
removed are the fishes.

	To effect the treatment, copper concentration should be maintained at 0.5
ppm for 7-10 days. The copper can be added as copper sulfate solution or as
other copper compounds. There are several aquarium products which can be
used including the medicines designed to kill Oodinium, a parasitic algae. A
copper test kit is needed to be sure the needed concentration levels are up
and more copper may be needed after the first day because plants and other
organics will absorb or bind with the chemical.  To reduce dissolved
organics, it can also help to first pre- filter the water with carbon or do
a large water change prior to adding copper in order to improve the
effectiveness of the treatment.  In general, the fishes should be removed
and only returned after the copper concentration is again below detection
limits. This is especially important for cyprinids and live bearers which
are particularly sensitive to copper. Same is true for snails and other
invertebrates. Some fishes including cichlids are relatively tolerant to
copper and may be allowed to remain in the aquarium if difficult to net out.

	 I have presented several methods for preventing or eliminating red algae.
The principle methods are: pre-treatment of plants with bleach, reduction of
water column nutrients, lots of healthy actively growing plants, algae
eating animals and copper algicide. Although this provides the rest of the
(current) story, it may not be my final word!
Neil Frank      TAG editor         Raleigh, NC