Index of Species
Table of Contents
This formatted copy is based
on the 4/8/97 version of the source document.
6.0 General Catalogs
Here is a list of non-aquarium
related catalogs that have items that may be of use to the serious
aquarist and DIYer.
- AIN Plastics 1-800-431-2451
- A nationwide plastic
supplier. They have about a dozen outlets and also ship orders.
The catalog contains info and specs on many types of plastics
that are useful for DIY aquarium projects. They have a $50 minimum
- C.F. Bowman & Co.
- 38 Addington Court,
East Brunswick, NJ 08816; PH (908) 390-6436, FX (908) 390-6438
C.F. Bowman & Co.
I heard of by e-mail, but I later noticed their ad in FAMA.
Their prices on acrylic tubing look very good, at least; a 60"
long 6" od 1/8" wall clear cast acrylic tube is $35.75, which
is about 60% of what I paid. I didn't find extruded tube, but
they do say to call for items not listed. They are ostensibly
wholesale only, so you may need to give a company name. They
also have a $50 minimum order.
- C and H Sales Company
- P.O. Box 5356, Pasadena,
CA 91117-9988; or 2176 E. Colorado Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91107; (213)
681-4925 (LA), (818) 796-2628 (Pasadena), (800) 325-9465
C & H sells a wide
collection of surplus and used equipment, ranging from fans,
blowers, pumps (water, air, and otherwise), electronic components,
motors (ac, dc, gearhead, stepper), solenoids, laboratory glassware,
chart recorders, and tools through stranger things like gyrocompasses
and a bit of defense electronics. Prices vary but are often
quite good. For those in Southern California, their store has
lots of odd items in quantities too small to include in the
- Cole-Palmer 1-800-323-4340
or 708 647-7600
- A huge catalog of
test equipment and related industrial hardware. Like Markson,
much is beyond the need and budget of a hobbiest but much is not.
One of this FAQ's authors gets his lab sized DI cartridges from
- Grainger Industrial
- A nationwide chain
of wholesalers of industrial needs. They have many stores in most
states. There is probably one near you. They have a huge catalog
of all sorts of things for DIYers, float-switches, ballasts, tools,
you name it. They are a wholesaler so they technically won't sell
to individuals. If you walk in (they have a counter just like
any retail hardware store) and pay cash and give the name of a
local company, they will sell to you. They just need to have the
name of a company to put on the invoice because legally, they
are a wholesaler. You don't need a tax number when you are paying
cash. You can just go in and give them the name of the company
where you work. It is probably a good idea to call ahead and see
if the item you want is in stock.
- Hach - Products for
- A catalog of testing
items. This is the next step if you want better test kits than
best kits normally available to the hobbiest (like Lamotte). Many
of their products are not beyond the budget of a serious hobbiest.
The also carry chemistry hardware like glassware.
- Herbach and Rademan
- A miscellaneous junk
catalog with all sorts of electronic, mechanical, and pumping
widgets and other gadgets. Also, surplus junk like power supplies.
A catalog of a variety
of scientific equipment, mostly chemistry related. Many of their
items are well beyond the need and budget of hobbiest but much
of it is not.
- The Surplus Center
- The phone number
is 800-488-3407 or 402-474-4055. Their catalog has a large number
of pages dedicated to hydraulic motors, pumps, and valves, which
are useless to reef keepers because of their metal construction.
However, the selection of electric motors is greater than that
of the other surplus catalogs listed in this document, and some
of these are finding their ways into experimental reef tank applications.
- United States Plastic
- 1390 Neubrecht Rd.,
Lima, Ohio 45801, 1-800-537-9724
US Plastics sells
a large selection of basic materials, plus an equally large
assortment of various manufactured items made of plastic and
some related items like fluid pumps. A few of the less common
items which come to mind are clear PVC, plastic tanks up to
a few thousand gallons, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
stock, flexible impeller pumps, and plastic welders. Of special
interest to the diy'er would be items like the thickened acrylic
cement (IMHO required for the best and strongest watertight
acrylic joints), their rod, pipe, tube, and sheet stock in pvc
and acrylic (where else do you find clear sheet pvc, or 90 degree
sweep fittings for lower backpressure?), and the large food-
quality drums for storing RO/DI water and mixed saltwater. The
fun of finding stuff you didn't know existed shouldn't be under-rated
7.0 Some Questions and
Q: Can I do this cheaply?
A: No, relative to a similar
size fish-only tank. (See cost estimate section)
Q: What if all I want
to keep is Anemones?
A: Water quality requirements
drop some (Nitrates should remain under 20ppm NO3-). Lighting requirements
are similar to full-reef tanks. The keeping of clownfish hosting anemones
is coming under some justified ethical review. In nature these anemones
are very long lived and have low successful reproduction rates. This
compounds with typically short (a couple of years vs. potentially
hundreds in the wild) lifetimes of captive anemones.
Q: What are good test
A: Tetra Hardness; Hach
Calcium, Iron, Phosphate - (303) 669-3050; LaMotte Nitrate, Phosphate.
Hach Test kit details:
- Cat. No. 1457-01,
Model HA-4P, $47.50, 100 test Dilute your sample 2:1 (Distilled:Saltwater).
Each drop of titrant will equal 24mg/l of Ca++. Dilution saves
titrant, and yields clearer results with sufficient accuracy.
- Cat. No. 22993-00,
Model IR-21, $57.50, 100 test Very important if Macro Algae growth
of primary interest.
- Cat. No. 2248-00,
Model PO-19, $54.50, 100 test This test is 2.5 times more sensitive
than the LaMotte test. The Hach is rated down to 0.02ppm, the
- Cat. No. 22550-00,
Model SI-7, $72.50, 100 test Not tested by any of the authors
of this FAQ. Mentioned due to its availability and track record
of Hach kits.
Q: What about cheaper
A: Kordon Ammonia, Nitrite,
low-end Nitrate not bad for gross measurement, will need LaMotte Nitrate
after water is in proper pollution range.
Q: Which Salt Mix is
A: Instant Ocean works for
many. Reef Crystal has had reported problems. Tropic Marin recommended
by some. Coralife dissolves fast, can sometimes be found cheap, but
is suspected of having higher borate concentrations than natural seawater.
Note that all 50 gallon
bags of salt are not the same. Instant Ocean bags weigh in at 16lbs
each, Coralife at 14.5lbs each. There is no magic here, at a given
temperature, a bag of IO will make a solution of higher specific
gravity (or more gallons at the same specific gravity) than a bag
of Coralife will.
Q: How do I get rid
of algae in my reef tank?
A: There are three types
of undesirable "algae" that commonly grow in reef tanks: long green
strands of hair algae, short fuzzy green turf algae, and brown or
red slime algae. Some people also consider fleshy macro alga, such
as Caulerpa, to be a pest as they can overgrow and choke out soft
corals. Desirable alga are the calcarious ones, both encrusting coralline
alga in pink, purple, white, yellow, maroon and brown, and larger
calcarious alga such as Halimeda. Some believe that any Macroalgae
(Caulerpa, Halimeda, etc.) do not belong in Reef tanks.
"Slime" alga is actually
cyanobacteria, not an alga. While its growth is often taken as a
sign of poor water quality, its occurrence is part of the normal
succession of a developing aquarium. It is uncommon for it not to
occur at some point. With patience it will go away all on its own,
but there are some things you can do to expedite the situation and
help prevent it from recurring:
Chevron and Mimic tangs
are known for having an appetite for cyanobacteria, as are baby
queen conch and some hermit crabs. Adding such creatures should
help a lot. So will innoculating the tank with some substrate from
an established tank that is slime algae free. Apparently such tank
harbor microfauna that consume or otherwise compete with the cyanobacteria.
By innoculating a tank experiencing the problem with a small handful
of substrate (a few tablespoons full will do) from an established
tank without the problem, chances are good that you will get a starter
colony of the desired microfauna. Use of activated carbon, strong
protein skimming, active mechanical removal, strong water currents,
and use of kalkwasser, will also help control its growth. As with
most things associated with reef tanks, don't expect overnight results.
We strongly recommend
against the use of any antibiotics, such as Maracyn,
in reef tanks. As a reef aquarist, you spend a lot of effort and
resources to build the bio-diversity of your tank up. Use of antibiotics
is in direct conflict with that goal. At best, it's a temporary
setback for the cynanobacteria, which, like most bacteria, will
eventually build up a resistance to the antibiotic.
The best way to deal
with hair and turf algae is not to let it grow to begin with. Keep
the tank dark while it is initially cycling. Keep nitrates and phosphates
as low as possible, and siphon out detritus. Keep herbivores in
the tank. Snails (as many as 1 for every 2-3 gallons) will eat turf
algae, and hair algae before it gets long. Tangs (especially Chevron,
Mimic, and Yellow) and many small blennies will eat many forms of
algae. If the tank does become overgrown, pull as much as possible
out by hand. Reduce the light cycle, or if there is nothing light
sensitive in the tank, leave it in darkness for a couple of weeks.
Get more herbivores. Be sure to siphon out their droppings, which
if left in the tank make great algae fertilizer. I have found that
urchins can help recover an overgrown tank, although they will knock
things over and eat any kind of algae, including desirable calcarious
algaes. Large numbers of small hermit crabs (on the order of 1 per
gallon) are very effective at removing and maintaining hair-algea
free live rock - but do little for sidewalls and glass. As usual,
a large bio-diversity with a mix of snail, tangs, crabs, and other
herbivores will do the best job.
Two relatively new concepts
are currently getting some attention in regards to hair algae control:
1) micrograzers and 2) long cycling. Some are beginning to believe
that the small Copepods and other "meiograzers" have a substantial
impact on the quantity of visible hair algae. The belief is that
the hair algae is always there, it's simply mowed down by the meiograzers
to the point where it's not typically visible. If this is true,
then inclusion of some fish, like mandarins (which feed heavily
on this size prey) would be inappropriate for reef tanks. As mentioned
in the Live Rock section of this FAQ, the patience to allow a tank
to cycle for 3-12 months prior to the addition of most fish (and
any non-herbivore fish) may improve the stability of the tank in
regards to hair algae. Although hair algae will normally bloom during
this period, a compensating population of micrograzers will also
bloom. Once the two come into balance, the normal routine of slowly
adding additional life forms can commence.
Q: How do I treat a
fish with ich in a reef tank?
A: From Craig Bingman:
The first places to look
- I don't know of any
medication for the treatment of marine ich that is safe to use
in a reef tank.
- A pair of Lysmata
cleaner shrimp typically can make a large difference, even in
cases where there is an ectoparasite explosion caused by an incoming
- If there are recurring
problems of this sort in a reef aquarium, the problem is almost
certainly a symptom of an underlying system performance or fish
Some fish that are cyanide-compromised
may be too weak and internally damaged that there is little that can
be done to help them.
- excessive temperature
- low dissolved oxygen
- stagnant water conditions
- improper fish nutrition
Use of a quarantine
tank is probably the best solution. A small 10 gallon tank with
a heater, air-stone, and some live rock for filtration should suffice.
If treatment of a new fish is required, it should be moved to a
similar, but live-rockless, hospital tank where medication can be
administered. When doing a water change from your main tank, consider
using any clean collected water as source water for your quarantine
and hospital tanks. This will help acclimate your new purchases
to the water parameters associated with their future home.
8.0 Book Review and
- The Reef Aquarium
Vol. 1, A comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of
Tropical Marine Invertebrates by J. Charles Delbeek and Julian
Sprung. 1994. Ricordea Publishing, Florida ISBN 1-883693-12-8
- Introduces the beginner
to the reef hobby in an understandable manner. All established
reef tank techniques are discussed. Even the expert gets a comprehensive
overview. Nice to read, up to date and a must for all serious
reef hobbyists. Vol. 2 will follow.
- The Modern Coral
Reef Aquarium Vol. 1 by Alf J. Nilsen and Svein Fossa. 1996.
B. Schmettkamp-Verlag, Bornheim, Germany ISBN 3-928819-29-1
- This Vol. 1 starts
a book series that has all of what's needed to become the backbone
of the reef hobby. In addition to the information value, it presents
an enormous amount of brilliant picture materials. Some of the
later Volumes are already available in German and contain more
than 1,000 colored pictures per book. Vol. 1 gives a description
of all techniques for setting up and maintaining reef tanks. Should
not be the very first book for the beginning enthusiast, but is
probably the best x-mas gift for any serious reef hobbyist.
Note that the English
version and German versions of this series are in a different
order with some different content:
English Volume 1
= German Volume 1 and Volume 2
English Volume 2 = German Volume 4 (Cnidaria)
English Volume 3 = German Volume 5 (unicellular animals, sponges,
English Volume 4 = German Volume 6 (other invertebrates)
English Volume 5 = German Volume 3 (fishes, with extensive rewriting)
- Giant Clams, A
comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of Tridacnid
Clams by Daniel Knop. 1996, Daehne-Verlag, Ettlingen, Germany
- The first book dedicated
to giant clams. Lots of information about tridacnid clams and
basic information about setting up and maintaining a reef tank.
Whoever likes clams will love the book.
- The Marine Aquarium
Handbook, Beginner to Breeder by Martin A. Moe, Jr. 1982.
Norns Publishing Company ISBN 0-939960-02-08
- An excellent first
reference on many topics. Not reef oriented.
- The Marine Aquarium
Reference, Systems and Invertebrates by Martin A. Moe, Jr.
1989. Green Turtle Publications, Florida ISBN 0-939960-05-2
- The place to begin
looking for almost every topic. Discussion of filtration is exhaustive,
though a bit spare on modern Berlin practice (is this still true
in the new edition?). A must buy for every reefkeeper.
- Advanced Reef
Keeping I, A Comprehensive Guide to Setting up Your Reef Tank
by Albert J. Thiel 1989. Aardvark Press ISBN 0-945777-01-9
- Small Reef Aquarium
Basics, The Optimum Aquarium for the Reef Hobbyist by Albert
J. Thiel 1989. Aardvark Press ISBN - 0945777-02-7
- Some good information
buried among dubious advice and the most wretched editing ever
conceived. His filtration ideas are rather old-fashioned. This
guy sold the expensive equipment that he recommends, so Caveat
Emptor should be your motto.
one particular way of maintaining reef aquaria. It's not the
only way, and it may not be the best way, but it does work.
The usual advice is for people to read his books, but to do
- Corals of the
World, Biology and Field Guide by Dr. Elizabeth M. Wood 1983.
T.F.H. Publications ISBN 0-87666-809-0 TFH# H-1049
- A good reference
for anyone who intends to keep stony corals. Like other books
not specifically written for the hobbyist, it does not discuss
the care of corals. May be out of print.
- Dynamic Aquaria
by Walter H. Adey and Karen Loveland. 1991 Academic Press, Inc.
- This book addresses
designing reef (and other) aquaria on ecological principles. The
book is best known for its extensive coverage of the Algal Turf
Scrubber method of water purification. The hobby remains skeptical
of the use of algal scrubbers as the primary means of water purification
on systems that maintain stony corals; see the scrubber section
of this FAQ. However, text dealing with algal scrubbers is just
a small portion of the book. Much of the space in the book is
spent reviewing the established scientific literature on aquatic
ecosystems, in language that the dedicated amateur aquarist can
understand. The statements that the book makes *in the review
sections* are well supported by citations to the scientific literature,
and in this way the book provides a nice bridge to those who want
to begin exploring the scientific literature. After reviewing
a particular aspect of natural ecology, the authors discuss appropriate
ways to model that aspect of ecology in a small, closed system.
It is in these sections that the reader must be more careful,
because the authors often do not distinguish what are widely established
results and what are their unproven hypotheses. If read critically
but with an open mind, the book offers a lot to serious hobbyists.
- The Reef Tank
Owner's Manual by John H. Tullock October 10, 1990. Aardvark
Press ISBN 0-945777-06-x
- Discussion of filtration
is old-fashioned, similar to Thiel's books but somewhat more grammatical.
Good discussions of individual animals and animal choices aimed
at the beginning and intermediate reefkeeper.
Tube-, Soft-, and Branching Corals by Peter Wilkens / Johannes
Birkholz 1986, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal ISBN 3-921677-14-9
Stone and False Corals, Colonial Anemones by Peter Wilkens
1990, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal ISBN 3-921677-15-7
- The authors' experience
and reputation is vast. Unfortunately production quality of the
English translation is poor, but there is no other comparable
reference. A must buy for anyone intending to keep corals.
Ettlingen, Germany, bought all the books from Pfreim Verlag
upon Mr. Pfriem's retirement.
- Fishes for the
Invertebrate Aquarium, 3rd ed. by Helmut Debelius 1989. Aquarium
- (An absolutely fascinating
speaker, BTW. If you ever get a chance to hear him speak, do so!)
Quite a lot of good information on reef-compatible fishes.
- Armored Knights
of the Sea
- Absolutely fantastic
shrimp book. Out of print, gold if you can get your hand on it.
- Corals of Australia
and the Indo-Pacific by J.E.N. Veron. Copyright 1986 The
Australian Institute of Marine Science. 1993 University of Hawaii
Press. ISBN 0-8248-1504-1
- The definitive reference
book for the Indo-Pacific stony corals. The original is out of
print and very difficult to find. A reprint run has recently been
- Living Corals
by Douglas Faulkner & Richard Chesher 1979, Crown Publishers,
Inc. ISBN 0-517-53854-7
- This is one of those
big picture books of corals, but it's the best one I've ever seen.
The photos are all top-notch, most show large groupings of a single
species. The descriptions are not with the pictures, which can
be disconcerting until you get used to it.
I believe this book
is out-of-print, though I often find used copies (fairly cheap!)
at a local bookstore.
- Marine Plants
of the Caribbean, A Field Guide from Florida to Brazil by
Diane Scullion Littler, Mark M. Littler, Katina E. Bucher,& James
N. Norris 1989. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
- Quite a good reference
book describing various species of algae that are found in the
waters of the Caribbean.
- Seaweeds of Hawaii,
A photographic Identification Guide by William H. Magruder
and Jeffrey W. Hunt 1979. The Oriental Publishing Company ISBN
- Another excellent
reference identifying algae found around Hawaii. Out of print.
- The Manual of
Marine Invertebrates by Martyn Haywood and Sue Wells 1989.
Salamander Books Ltd., London ISBN 0-86101-474-X
- I'd recommend the
Manual of Marine Invertebrates by Hayward. While this does not
go into a great deal of detail on anything, it covers every class
of inverts and is good for learning about what's on your live
rock and the basics of care for different kinds of creatures.
It contains quite a few mistakes, but is a good reference book
- Encyclopedia of
Marine Inverts by Jerry Walls, (TFH, Neptune, NJ: 1988) ISBN
- [Compared to Manual
of Marine Invertebrates by Hayward] and found that the later (Wall's
book) appeared to have a lot more info. It isn't a great book
from the aquarium point of view but does cover the basics of all
the Phyla. It has a lot of color plates. I was able to identify
a number of Live-Rock ReefCritters(tm) with it.
- Dr. Burgess's
Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes by Dr. Warren E. Burgess,
Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod, & Raymond E. Hunziker III 1988. T.F.H.
Publications TFH# H-1100
- "The big picture
book of fishes." Considered the first book to look marine fish
up in. Second edition has been published.
- The Captive Reef:
A Concise Guide to Reef Aquaria in the Home by Dana Riddle.
1995, Energy Savers Unlimited, Inc. ISBN 0-9640147-2-6
- This is a good starter
book for the beginning reef aquarist. The subject of reef aquaria
is treated in an easy to understand format targeted at the layman.
While targeted at the layman there is some information in the
text of interest to the intermediate and advanced aquarist, mostly
in the form of charts and graphs. There is also a chapter on feeding
corals that aquarist may find useful as a starting point for experimentation.
- Tropical Pacific
Invertebrates: A Field Guild to the Marine Invertebrates Occuring
on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves
by Patrick L. Colin & Charles Arneson. 1995, Coral Reef Press.
- This is a good reference
book with lots of high quality color plates of tropical pacific
invertebrates. The text is organized by phylum and each section
starts with an introduction to that phylum. Color plates of many
species in each phylum accompanied by short textual descriptions
follow the introduction section. Many of the various invertebrates
kept in aquaria are represented.
9.0 Useful Tables
meq/l ppm KH
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.05 2.50 0.14
0.10 5.00 0.28
0.15 7.50 0.42
0.20 10.00 0.56
0.25 12.50 0.70
0.30 15.00 0.84
0.35 17.50 0.98
0.40 20.00 1.12
0.45 22.50 1.26
0.50 25.00 1.40
0.55 27.50 1.54
0.60 30.00 1.68
0.65 32.50 1.82
0.70 35.00 1.96
0.75 37.50 2.10
0.80 40.00 2.24
0.85 42.50 2.38
0.90 45.00 2.52
0.95 47.50 2.66
1.00 50.00 2.80
1.10 55.00 3.08
1.20 60.00 3.36
1.30 65.00 3.64
1.40 70.00 3.92
1.50 75.00 4.20
1.60 80.00 4.48
1.70 85.00 4.76
1.80 90.00 5.04
1.90 95.00 5.32
2.00 100.00 5.60
2.10 105.00 5.88
2.20 110.00 6.16
2.30 115.00 6.44
2.40 120.00 6.72
2.50 125.00 7.00
2.60 130.00 7.28
2.70 135.00 7.56
2.80 140.00 7.84
2.90 145.00 8.12
3.00 150.00 8.40
3.10 155.00 8.68
3.20 160.00 8.96
3.30 165.00 9.24
3.40 170.00 9.52
3.50 175.00 9.80
3.60 180.00 10.08
3.70 185.00 10.36
3.80 190.00 10.64
3.90 195.00 10.92
4.00 200.00 11.20
4.20 210.00 11.76
4.40 220.00 12.32
4.60 230.00 12.88
4.80 240.00 13.44
5.00 250.00 14.00
(1) (50) (2.8)
Nitrogen as Ammonia,
N N NH3 NO2 NO3
ppm uM/l mg/l mg/l mg/l
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.005 0.357 0.006 0.016 0.022
0.010 0.714 0.012 0.033 0.044
0.015 1.071 0.018 0.049 0.066
0.020 1.429 0.024 0.066 0.089
0.025 1.786 0.030 0.082 0.111
0.030 2.143 0.036 0.099 0.133
0.035 2.500 0.043 0.115 0.155
0.040 2.857 0.049 0.131 0.177
0.045 3.214 0.055 0.148 0.199
0.050 3.571 0.061 0.164 0.221
0.055 3.929 0.067 0.181 0.244
0.060 4.286 0.073 0.197 0.266
0.065 4.643 0.079 0.214 0.288
0.070 5.000 0.085 0.230 0.310
0.075 5.357 0.091 0.246 0.332
0.080 5.714 0.097 0.263 0.354
0.085 6.071 0.103 0.279 0.376
0.090 6.429 0.109 0.296 0.399
0.095 6.786 0.115 0.312 0.421
0.100 7.143 0.121 0.329 0.443
0.15 10.71 0.18 0.49 0.66
0.20 14.29 0.24 0.66 0.89
0.25 17.86 0.30 0.82 1.11
0.30 21.43 0.36 0.99 1.33
0.35 25.00 0.42 1.15 1.55
0.40 28.57 0.49 1.31 1.77
0.45 32.14 0.55 1.48 1.99
0.50 35.71 0.61 1.64 2.21
0.55 39.29 0.67 1.81 2.44
0.60 42.86 0.73 1.97 2.66
0.65 46.43 0.79 2.14 2.88
0.70 50.00 0.85 2.30 3.10
0.75 53.57 0.91 2.46 3.32
0.80 57.14 0.97 2.63 3.54
0.85 60.71 1.03 2.79 3.76
0.90 64.29 1.09 2.96 3.99
0.95 67.86 1.15 3.12 4.21
1.00 71.43 1.21 3.29 4.43
1.50 107.14 1.82 4.93 6.64
2.00 142.86 2.43 6.57 8.86
2.50 178.57 3.04 8.21 11.07
3.00 214.29 3.64 9.86 13.29
3.50 250.00 4.25 11.50 15.50
4.00 285.71 4.86 13.14 17.71
4.50 321.43 5.46 14.79 19.93
5.00 357.14 6.07 16.43 22.14
5.50 392.86 6.68 18.07 24.36
6.00 428.57 7.29 19.71 26.57
6.50 464.29 7.89 21.36 28.79
7.00 500.00 8.50 23.00 31.00
7.50 535.71 9.11 24.64 33.21
8.00 571.43 9.71 26.29 35.43
8.50 607.14 10.32 27.93 37.64
9.00 642.86 10.93 29.57 39.86
9.50 678.57 11.54 31.21 42.07
10.00 714.29 12.14 32.86 44.29
Ca CaCO3 dH
0.00 0.00 0.00
5.00 12.50 0.70
10.00 25.00 1.40
15.00 37.50 2.10
20.00 50.00 2.80
25.00 62.50 3.50
30.00 75.00 4.20
35.00 87.50 4.90
40.00 100.00 5.60
45.00 112.50 6.30
50.00 125.00 7.00
55.00 137.50 7.70
60.00 150.00 8.40
65.00 162.50 9.10
70.00 175.00 9.80
75.00 187.50 10.50
80.00 200.00 11.20
85.00 212.50 11.90
90.00 225.00 12.60
95.00 237.50 13.30
100.00 250.00 14.00
110.00 275.00 15.40
120.00 300.00 16.80
130.00 325.00 18.20
140.00 350.00 19.60
150.00 375.00 21.00
160.00 400.00 22.40
170.00 425.00 23.80
180.00 450.00 25.20
190.00 475.00 26.60
200.00 500.00 28.00
210.00 525.00 29.40
220.00 550.00 30.80
230.00 575.00 32.20
240.00 600.00 33.60
250.00 625.00 35.00
260.00 650.00 36.40
270.00 675.00 37.80
280.00 700.00 39.20
290.00 725.00 40.60
300.00 750.00 42.00
320.00 800.00 44.80
340.00 850.00 47.60
360.00 900.00 50.40
380.00 950.00 53.20
400.00 1000.00 56.00
420.00 1050.00 58.80
440.00 1100.00 61.60
460.00 1150.00 64.40
480.00 1200.00 67.20
500.00 1250.00 70.00
The original document
was created by the joint effort of many individual people, sharing
a common interest in "Reef Keeping". Those who allowed their names
- Patti Beadles
- Craig Bingman
- Kevin Carpenter (editor)
- Gary Dudley
- Frank M. Greco
- Ken Koellner
- Dustin Laurence (FTP
- Teresa Moore
- David O'Brien
- Chris Paris
- Paul Prior
- Keith Rogers
- Mark Rosenstein
- Dave Sheehy (proof
- Greg Smith
- Spass Stoiantschewsky
- Anthony Tse
- Steve Tyree
- John Ward (FTP site