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Re: Live Foods Digest V2 #228

Hello John,

It is fortunate, that you have access to a good academic library -- I
miss that sorely! 

Right now I can't lay my hands on the "two kinds of ephippia" paper(s). 
But in a good library you will have access to Biological Abstracts,
perhaps even have them online, so searching for "ephippium" and/or
"daphnia" will get you these papers. 

There was a spate of publications about 10-15? years ago. One
interesting paper was from Leningrad, Russia. The authors did
experiments on the freeze/thaw cycles, using a local strain of a
cladoceran, can't remember which. Several Finnish workers also did work
in that area. 

Closer to home, R.W. Pennak in his "F-W Invertebrates of the US" refers,
in several places, to spring and fall maxima in cladoceran populations
and that males tend to appear in late spring and fall. Males = ephippia.

If you find out more detail on this subject, please share. For the last
5 years or so, I did not try to keep abreast in that field.



John Clare wrote:
> Hi George,
> Your description of winter and summer ephippia intrigues me. I have done
> a lot of study regarding Daphnia (I have access to one of the biggest
> libraries in europe due to legal deposition), but I don't think I've come
> across this phenomenon. What species of Daphnia produce these two types of
> ephippia? I would be very interested in any info you could give me, as my
> own practical experience is based on just two species, Daphnia pulex and
> Daphnia magna.
> Regards,
> John

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