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Re: substrate riser tube pressure

> I think I ended up estimating the ideal pressure head for
>  proper substrate circulation to be on the order of one thousandth of an
>  inch


Thanks.  I'm thinking that I could restrict the flow by using laterite or some
other clay in the substrate.  That would allow for a head on the order of an
eigth of an inch, which I could achieve   I'm also thinking that if bacteria
can absorb ammonia and nitrites in a 55-gallon tank with two 150 gal/hr
powerheads, then nutrients caught in eddies around the clay should be able to
get  themselves attached to a cation exchange site with flows as high as one
to three gallons per hour spread over the four square feet of floor.

But it seems to me it's all guesswork.  How did you achieve the determination
that you wanted .001 inch of head for your flow rate, and how did you decide
what flow rate you wanted?  I saw the post about it being more a question of
dwell time, but that still is directly related to flow rate.