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substrate riser tube pressure

Bob Dixon ponders under gravel plenums, riser tubes and airstones last

Many years ago I was fiddling with a substrate circulation system
(gasp!) and I estimated flow rates through the substrate by measuring
the time it took the water level in the riser tube to fall a few
millimeters. I think I ended up estimating the ideal pressure head for
proper substrate circulation to be on the order of one thousandth of an
inch. An airstone would give you a lot more pressure than that. The
write up was in one of the first few months of the APD but I don't know
how you'd find it now.