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alkalinity and hardness; specific and general.

Would anyone be interested in a quick tutorial on specific and general
hardness?  I have read many FAQs and pages but they all dance around without
exactly spelling things out.

I believe alkalinity to be specific hardness (KH?) while general hardness is
GH.  I have also read to add NaHCO3 at 6 grams per 50 L to increase KH by 4
degrees.  Addition of 4 g CaCO3 per 50 L is reported to increase KH and GH
by 4 degrees [from the homepage of George Booth-thx).  Has anyone had
experience in creating tailored hard water?
What is the conversion between degrees and ppm?
Are there any other salts to add to modify GH and KH (eg, Mg)?

Thanks in advance for any help.