Dwarf Swords

Aquatic Plants Digest
Thursday, 28 November 1996
Volume 02 :
Number 348

Matthew Schwartz wrote:

> Are there any species or hybrids/varieties of Echinodorus that stay small? 
> [Under 10 inches tall?] OTHER than the chain swords, which species 
> could I use in my 29 gallon that wouldn't get too big? 


I tackled this question about six months ago because I wanted to
establish some small biotope tanks.  I'm still working on it. George
Booth got me started but, I searched through most of the major works
on aquatic plants and have to date identified about seven "dwarf"
(10" or less) species total.  In certain cases there were several
common names for a species and even disagreement over scientific
names (it can get confusing at times).  Here are my findings of
hours and hours of research.  Thanks for asking the question as I'm
glad I could share my work. This gives me an opportunity
for everyone on the list to check it over and I would welcome any 
comments on the list I've compiled.  Getting some of these might be 
more of a challenge.  

Family Alismataceae [Linne, 1753] "water plantain"
Genus Echinodorus [Richard, 1848] "hedgehog  tube"

Pygmy Chain (Amazon) Swordplant
Echinodorus tenellus "very tender, soft"
[Martius, 1830] Buchenau, 1869
Guyanan-Amazonian Ichthyofaunal Region 

Dwarf (Amazon) Swordplant
Echinodorus quadricostatus "four ribbed" [Fassett, 1955] 
Variety xinguensis [Rataj]
Guyanan-Amazonian Ichthyofaunal Region 

Pygmy (Amazon) Swordplant
Echinodorus latifolius "with broad leaves" 
[Seubert, 1848] Rataj, 1975
Orinoco-Venezuelan Ichthyofaunal Region

Dwarf Bolivian (Amazon) Swordplant
Echinodorus bolivinus "Canadian botanist Boivin"
[Rusby, ? ] Holm-Nielsen
Guyanan-Amazonian & Orinoco-Venezuelan 
Ichthyofaunal Regions
Bolovia, Brazil, Colombia & Venezuela

Black(water)/Tropico (Amazon) Swordplant
Echinodorus parviflorus "having small flowers" 
[Rataj, 1976]
Guyanan-Amazonian Ichthyofaunal Region 
Bolivia & Peru

Chain (Amazon) Swordplant
Echinodorus augustifolius "narrow-leafed"
[Rataj, 1975]

Dwarf Heart-shaped (Amazon) Swordplant
Echinodorus cordifolius "develops flowers"
[Linne, 1753] Grisebach, 1857

E. Keith Johnson
Johnson City, TN