Re: Substrate Heating

James: I have built and used several PVC-pipe substrate heaters. The
plans are available in the July, 1995 issue of Aquarium Fish Magazine.
I am happy with the results I have gotten and it only cost me about
forty bucks and two evenings to make. PVC is supposed to be a lousy
heat-transfering material, but it surely works. I have one of the
substrate heated tanks in my garage and even during the winter, do not
have trouble maintaining temperature.

Good Luck