Re: Substrate heating

> From: BobWurster at aol_com
> Is there any empirical evidence that convection currents are created by
> substrate heating? 

Other than veiled references in TOA, none that I'm aware of.

> Does real groundwater contain enough oxygen to have that effect?

Any hydrologists out there?  TOA claims that they found very little 
in the way of anaerobic areas when they were researching substrates
in streams and lakes with plant growth.  Who knows?  The ground water 
doesn't need much oxygen - the substrate needs to be somewhat
anaerobic ("anoxic", I think) to allow reducing reactions to occur. 

> And a final question I can't resist: Who translated The Optimum
> Aquarium, anyway?

Ah, that's easy - Albert J. Thiel, of Thiel Aquatech fame (infame?).