Re: Substrate heating

On Mon, 05 Jun 1995 Kevin Conlin <kcconlin at zola_cae.ca> wrote:
> People have made all sorts of statements regarding convection
> patterns in the gravel without (as far as I can tell) making any
> measurements or citing any non-biased references.

Is there any empirical evidence that convection currents are created by
substrate heating? I have wondered about this for some time. And a second
related question: My understanding of the theory behind the use of substrate
heating (as explained in The Optimum Aquarium) is that it serves two
functions. First, it facilitates an iron cycle that is beneficial to plants.
Second, it helps prevent anaerobic conditions in the substrate by simulating
the flow of groundwater up through the earth under a body of water, be it
stream or lake. My question is this: Does real groundwater contain enough
oxygen to have that effect?
And a final question I can't resist:  Who translated The Optimum Aquarium,