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Re: [APD] woes with walsted type tank

--- Bill D <billinet at comcast_net> wrote:

>. . .  A "natural" tank
> should have 2 wpg or
> maybe
> a smidgeon more, lots of fish, and limited dosing, if
> any.   Since carbon is
> the limiting
> factor in those tanks, bio-wheels are best not used and
> excessive surface
> agitation
> should be avoided.

Good points, Bill. However, I would hem and haw a bit about
the bio-wheels and surface turbulence. That is, I'm not
sure that they'd present a problem -- if CO2 is not being
injected, then the diff in CO2 levels if there is surface
turbulence or not is pretty darn small since the CO2 levels
are pretty darn small.

Some agitation or aeration can be a good idea in tanks that
are well stocked with fish but have only low or moderate
lighting. In such tanks, air water O2 exchange can be more


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