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**To**:**<Aquatic-Plants at actwin_com>****Subject**:**Re: DIY Substrate Heating****From**:**"Steven Pituch" <spituch at ev1_net>**- Date: Tue, 15 Jul 2003 14:11:31 -0500

Gordon, I'm not sure how the transformer is hooked up or how you are determining Voltage. 30 gauge copper wire has a resistance of about 113 Ohms per 1000 feet. Your 12 feet probably has a resistance of about 1.4 Ohms. Since Volts = Amps x Resistance, in theory at least, at 9 Volts you would be getting about 6.4 Amps of current which would give you about 57 Watts (6.4 x 6.4 x 1.4) of heat. However, the 50 Watt 12 Volt transformer probably can only take 4 Amps of current before (50/12) dropping its Voltage. Hence perhaps this is the reason for you using only 9 Volts out from the transformer. You probably need 3 Ohms of resistance (12V/4A) to keep the current under 4 Amps and permit the full use of the 12 Volts available from the transformer. If you used about 27 feet of wire you would have 3 Ohms. The power out would be P=IxIxR=4A x 4A x 3 Ohms = 48 Watts of heat which is what the transformer is rated. I can't vouch for the safety of your experiment. You should at least have a fuse on the AC (120 V) side of the transformer (I'd try .5 Amp first) and a GFCI. I get very nervous when I hear of electricity being put in water. You can still get electrocuted when using a GFCI. For reference, per the Innes Book, 2 Watts is required to raise 1 gallon of water 5 degrees F above ambient temperature. Hope this helps. Regards, Steve

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