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Re: Stephen Spotte

The book I think may have a considerable amount of information on bio 
filtration is Spotte's book "Captive Seawater Fishes, Science and 
Technology" published 1992 in the United States by John Wiley and 
Sons, ISBN 0-471-54554-6.

Another book with really good info on bio filters is "Aquaculture and 
Water Quality" edited by Brune and Tamasso,  published by World 
Aquaculture Society 1991.   ISBN 09624529-1-2.   It is a series of 
papers.   One of the papers compares all the efficiencies of the 
different types of bio filters.    They rate motor driven rotating 
bio contacters as most efficient and trickle filters next. 
Undergravels and fluidised beds don't perform that well.  Hope this 

Dave Wilson