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Re: root and leaf uptake

> I have read that aquatic plants can take in nutrients both through their
> leaves and roots.  These varies for different plant species.  I am quite
> new in keeping plants in my tanks.  Can anyone advice me which plants uses
> their leaves and which uses their roots for nutrient uptake?

Generally speaking, crypts and swords tend to have well developed root
systems and can pull in a large amounts of nutrients this way.
All plants will take the nutrients in from both sources. At lower lighting
values you can add nutrients to only the substrate but as the lighting gets
higher, a heavier reliance is placed on the water column for nutrient
transport and uptake.
> In the APD, I have read about adding nutrients to the water.  Is that alone
> sufficient? 

Certainly. Crypts and swords do well when water column fertilizer is present
and there's n      
o fertilizer at all in plain gravel. They live and grow just fine. Adding
flourite or laterite plus sand also will help even with water column
fertilizer so you get the best of both this way.

> Or do I need to fertilise the substrate too?

Most folks do both and cover both bases. I use Flourite for the substrate
and that takes care of all those issues. Then I use the water column for the
rest. I can test the nutrients in the water column and tell what's going on.
You cannot do this in the substrate. You only guess. With water column
dosing you can dose the nutrients at any commonly kept light level.
Substrate fertilizer alone will not be able to keep up at higher light
Many plants do not have roots or ones that are attached into the substrate

Tom Barr
> BC (Singapore)