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Optimum CO2 levels?

This afternoon, I was re-reading the book "Aquarium Ecology, a Supplementary
Approach", 2nd edition, which was/is a Tunze publication.

In the section on carbon dioxide in the aquarium, there is a particularly
convoluted (at least, it seems convoluted to me) discussion of "bound carbon
dioxide", "balanced carbon dioxide" (a.k.a "free appertaining carbon
dioxide"), and finally, "free aggressive carbon dioxide".

The book also gives recommended levels of CO2 for at least two different
plant groups. They recommend that Crypts be maintained in the range of 5-15
mg/l CO2 and that Echinodorus species be maintained within a range of 15-30
mg/l CO2. The book gives no reference for these recommendations.

Does anyone know if any scientific studies have been done which would either
support of refute these ranges?


James Purchase