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What are Water Changes for?

I have kind of an Algae problem, the only one I'm able to cultivate is green
spot on the front glass, though I haven't seen any new ones for about a
week. my Hygro polysperma grows like a weed, not even anachris is able to
compete, java moss still doesn't grow that fast, I've notice it only does
incredibly well with sunlight rather than artificial. I have 1 20watt flour,
and 1 30 watt compact flour. I usually dose a weeks worth of liquid
fertilizer based on PMDD ratio's. Yet my nutrients seem to have difficulty
building up. After about a month and 1 week w/o a water change in my 29
gallon tank, 0 ammonia, 0 nitrite, and 0 nitrate. Now I've heard there are
other things beneficial from a water change, such as removing protien and
hormones. I feed food which is quite high in protien, but I never get a film
layer on the surface since adding the guppys and swordtails. So that would
only leave hormones, as I dont know anything else. What affect do hormones
have on adult fish if any? How are the hormones delt with in nature? Is
there any other reasons to do water changes? The typical answer I've gotten
is it replenishes the natural elements, like what though? Obviously I can
add these :) Also, does anyone know a dry substance for dosing phosphates,
I'm quite sure I have a phosphate problem since I have quite a bit of iother
nutrients in the water, but growth isn't optimial.

- Matt