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Re: Substrate heating

> Subject: Substrate Heating
> Tom Brennan wrote:
> I
> think my available Phosphate and Iron levels would be much higher if it were
> not for the steady convection and cation exchange and element reductions
> (divalent state) going on in my substrate making elements (Ammonium, K, P
> Fe, Ca, Mg and other trace elements) available to plant roots.

	Of the items in this list, K, P, Ca and Mg are all in oxidation 
states that are _not_ going to be changed in an aquarium.  The K will be K+,
the P will be in a phosphate form - effectively P(V) and the Ca and Mg will 
be Ca++ and Mg++.  The iron could be reduced from III to II in the substrate,
and ammonia could be oxidised to nitrate.

Paul Sears        Ottawa, Canada